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Jean-Benoit PILET


coordonnées


Faculté de Philosophie et Sc. sociales
Jean-Benoît PILET
tel 02 650 31 81, Jean-Benoit.Pilet@ulb.ac.be
Campus du Solbosch
CP124, avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Bruxelles




unités de recherche


Centre d'étude de la vie politique [Center for the Study of Politics] (CEVIPOL)



projets


ESCE : Electoral System Changes in Europe since 1945 [ESCE : Electoral System Changes in Europe since 1945]
Building upon the literature that has developed since the mid-1990s on the politics of electoral system changes the ESCE research projects aims at moving one step further our understanding of the issue. To that extent ESCE aims at becoming the most ambitious research project so far in both time and scope in the field of electoral reform studies. All electoral system changes in Europe since 1945 are going to be studied, and the definition of what an electoral system change is would be also broaden by including electoral formula, district magnitude and thresholds but also changes to the ballot structure. On the basis of this very rich material the analysis would concentrate on four issues. (1) We are going to examine whether there is a change in the nature of the electoral reform process, in the way changes to the electoral law occur. Traditionally the process was fully under the control of the political elite but recent developments have show that citizens are getting more involved (Italy, NZ, British Columbia). We are going to verify if there is a clear trend or if the inclusion of citizens remains anecdotic. (2) What is considered in most articles and books to be the main driver of reform is the strategic interest of parties. Our perspective is that this model is too straightforward. The nature and dynamic of partisan interest is much more complex that the literature tells. In particular we aim at studying how the subjectivity of actors may be crucial to understand how they define whether a reform would be in their interest or not. (3) The role of values in electoral system changes would be discussed. The circumstances in which values are likely to operate and the effects they may have will be explored. And (4) we are going to look at the outcome of electoral system changes since 1945 in order to see whether we can identify trends leading European democracies in the same direction concerning the rules of the game they adopt for organizing elections. Both the proportionality and the personalization theses are going to be verified. [Building upon the literature that has developed since the mid-1990s on the politics of electoral system changes the ESCE research projects aims at moving one step further our understanding of the issue. To that extent ESCE aims at becoming the most ambitious research project so far in both time and scope in the field of electoral reform studies. All electoral system changes in Europe since 1945 are going to be studied, and the definition of what an electoral system change is would be also broaden by including electoral formula, district magnitude and thresholds but also changes to the ballot structure. On the basis of this very rich material the analysis would concentrate on four issues. (1) We are going to examine whether there is a change in the nature of the electoral reform process, in the way changes to the electoral law occur. Traditionally the process was fully under the control of the political elite but recent developments have show that citizens are getting more involved (Italy, NZ, British Columbia). We are going to verify if there is a clear trend or if the inclusion of citizens remains anecdotic. (2) What is considered in most articles and books to be the main driver of reform is the strategic interest of parties. Our perspective is that this model is too straightforward. The nature and dynamic of partisan interest is much more complex that the literature tells. In particular we aim at studying how the subjectivity of actors may be crucial to understand how they define whether a reform would be in their interest or not. (3) The role of values in electoral system changes would be discussed. The circumstances in which values are likely to operate and the effects they may have will be explored. And (4) we are going to look at the outcome of electoral system changes since 1945 in order to see whether we can identify trends leading European democracies in the same direction concerning the rules of the game they adopt for organizing elections. Both the proportionality and the personalization theses are going to be verified. ]

MAPP: La participation politique conventionnelle en Belgique : les adhérents des partis politiques en Belgique [MAPP: The conventional political participation in Belgium : Membership of the Belgian Political Parties]
L'objectif du projet est de contribuer à combler le déficit de la connaissance scientifique dans l'étude des partis et de la militance en Belgique. Nous le ferons en référence au canevas que nous avons évoqué mais aussi eu égard aux études européennes relatives au rôle et au profil des adhérents de partis politiques et aux stratégies éventuelles des partis face à l'adhésion compte tenu d'un certain nombre d'évolutions ; par exemple le financement public des partis politiques. Dans le cadre du bousculement politique et citoyen que la société belge a connu entre 1995 et 1999, nous testerons aussi les théories de la convergence des militances associative et politique ou, inversement, de leur différence et de leur caractère mutuellement exclusif.Le projet est prévu sur trois années civiles. [The objective of this project os to tackle the lack of scientific knowledge in the study of political parties and activism in Belgium. The project will take into account a number of developments, such as new funding rules for political parties as well as a European comparative perspective. Against the background of important transformations of the Belgian political landscapes in the last years, the hypothesis of a convergence between acitivism in political parties and in associations will be tested. The programme should run for three civil years. ]

PARENEL: Représentation Parlementaire aux niveaux national et européen. Une comparaison France - Belgique - Pays d'Europe centrale et orientale [PARENEL: National Parliamentary Representation in Europe. Comparing Belgium-France-Eastern and Central Europe]
Le projet PANEREL vise à appréhender l'identité, les comportements et la socialisation des parlementaires. Pour ce faire, il importe d'identifier le faisceau de contraintes dans lequel ils évoluent, ainsi que l'impact des représentations qu'ils ont à l'égard de leur rôle, de leur mandat, de leur rapport au(x) territoire(s), de leur position dans l'institution et de la place de cette institution dans le système politique. Dans une approche cognitiviste, on étudiera la manière dont ils ajustent leur comportement à un corpus de règles formelles et informelles, qui est très sédimenté dans le cas des chambres nationales, et susceptible d'évolutions - et donc de conflits - dans le cas du Parlement européen. Ce projet met de plus en lumière les interactions entre les parlementaires et leur institution. Ce faisant, on pourra évoquer avec quelque rigueur la question de la transformation des rôles parlementaires et celle de l'adaptation des institutions parlementaires aux évolutions de leur environnement, et notamment à la redéfinition des espaces d'action publique. Il s'agit aussi de voir dans quelle mesure leurs valeurs, représentations, comportements et priorités sont affectés par leur socialisation dans l'institution parlementaire. Ce projet permet également d'analyser les modalités et évolution de la territorialisation de la représentation. Il est indispensable de se pencher sur les conditions de l'accès à la fonction de parlementaire et de sa conservation, et sur le sens que revêt aujourd'hui la notion de représentation parlementaire. S'agissant du Parlement européen, l'ambition est d'examiner la manière dont ses membres s'inscrivent progressivement dans les paysages politiques nationaux et régionaux, et parviennent ou non à trouver des ancrages territoriaux et à peser sur l'action publique à l'échelle locale.



theses


PILET, Jean-Benoit ''Réformer le système électoral en Belgique : une mise en cause du modèle consociatif ? L'analyse des fondements de trois réformes électorales débattues entre 1990 et 2005'', Faculté des sciences sociales, politiques et économiques; Dir: P. Delwit, 2006



prix


Leon Weaver Award 2007 for the best paper on electoral systems presented at the APSA Annual Meeting 2006



disciplines et mots clés déclarés


Partis politiques groupes de pression Science politique générale Sciences politiques auxiliaires

1945 electoral esce militance représentation parlementaire system