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Olivier P. GOSSELAIN


coordonnées


Faculté de Philosophie et Sc. sociales
Olivier GOSSELAIN
tel 02 650 43 38, fax 02 650 43 37, Olivier.Gosselain@ulb.ac.be
Campus du Solbosch
CP124, avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Bruxelles




unités de recherche


Centre d'anthropologie culturelle [Center of Cultural Anthropology] (CAC)
CReA-Patrimoine. Centre de Recherches en Archéologie et Patrimoine [CReA-Patrimoine. Research Centre in Archaeology and Heritage] (CReA-Patrimoine)
ReSIC: Information et Communication [ReSIC: Research Center in Information and Communication] (ReSIC)



projets


CROSSROADS - Crossroads of empires : archaeology, material culture and sociopolitical relationships in West Africa [CROSSROADS of empires : archaeology, material culture and sociopolitical relationships in West Africa ]
Le projet réunit une équipe d'archéologues, historiens et anthropologues qui étudient la vallée du Niger, à la frontière du Niger et du Bénin (Afrique de l'Ouest) qui espère faire la lumière sur les personnes qui ont habité la région au cours des 1500 dernières années et de comprendre comment les mouvements de population et des techniques artisanales du passé se sont formées dans la région. [The project brings together a team of archaeologists, historians and anthropologists studying the Niger Valley where it borders Niger and Bénin (West Africa). We are hoping to shed more light on the people that inhabited the area in the past 1500 years and to understand how population movements and craft techniques shaped the area's past. ]

''Une histoire à hauteur de femmes.  Approche des techniques et de la culture matérielle dans les activités féminines de la région du Dendi (Nord Bénin) de la fin du 19e siècle à nos jours.'' Doctorat : Lucie SMOLDEREN. Direction O. GOSSELAIN ['' A female height history. Approach technical and material culture in women's activities of the Dendi region ( northern Benin ) from the late 19th century to today. ]
Le projet porte sur l'histoire des femmes de la partie méridionale du Dendi (vallée du Niger, Nord Bénin). Absentes des narrations traditionnelles et officielles, la place et la voix des femmes durant les bouleversements socio-économiques qu'a connus la région entre la fin des 19e et 20e siècles (islamisation, colonisation, indépendance, révolution marxiste) restent inconnues.  L'objectif du projet est de mettre en place une méthode adaptée à la reconstruction de l'histoire récente d'un groupe ''cible'' marginalisé. Reposant sur les acquis de la technologie culturelle, ma démarche vise à exploiter la culture matérielle et les techniques comme sources historiques alternatives dans deux contextes d'observation. Le premier porte sur les activités quotidiennes (ménagères, commerciales, agricoles), le second porte sur les activités cérémonielles (initiation, mariage, possession). Pour chacune de ces sphères, les processus techniques constitutifs des diverses activités seront identifiés : les acteurs et les rapports sociaux, les matériaux, les outils et objets, les gestes, et les représentations mobilisés. Une telle analyse permet, ensuite, une étude comparative multiscalaire. Pour entrer dans la diachronie, cette perspective analytique et comparative sera mise en relation avec la trajectoire de vie des informatrices.  Tout en contribuant à combler les lacunes documentaires sur l'histoire, encore mal connue, de cette région d'Afrique de l'Ouest, le projet participe au renouvellement des objets et des méthodes de recherches historiques sur les groupes marginalisés. [The project focuses on the history of women in the southern part of Dendi (Niger Valley, Northern Benin). Absent traditional and official narratives, the place and the voice of women in the socio-economic upheavals in the region between the late 19th and 20th centuries (Islamization, colonization, independence, Marxist revolution) remain unknown. The project objective is to develop a method suitable for the reconstruction of the recent history of a group ''target'' marginalized. Based on the achievements of the cultural technology, my approach is to use the material culture and techniques as alternative historical sources in two observational contexts. The first deals with daily activities (domestic, commercial, agricultural), the second covers the ceremonial activities (initiation, marriage, possession). For each of these spheres, the constituent technical processes of the various activities will be identified: the actors and social relations, materials, tools and objects, gestures, and mobilized representations. Such analysis allows then multiscalar a comparative study. To enter the diachronic, this analytical and comparative perspective will be related with the life trajectory of informants. While helping to fill the gaps documentaries on history, still poorly understood, in this region of West Africa, the project involved the renewal of objects and methods of historical research on marginalized groups.]

Entrepreneuriat indigène en Afrique du Sud et le Zimbabwe : la politique et la pratique. Doctorant : Ndivhuho TSHIKOVHI. Direction : O. GOSSELAIN [Indigenous Entrepreneurship in South Africa and Zimbabwe: Policy and Practice]
In several African states, the discussion about economic empowerment of indigenous people forms an integral part of most policy discussions. With indigenous peoples economic circumstances not improving in South Africa and Zimbabwe, in particular, it would be reasonable to investigate the existing economic empowerment policies in both countries. The evolvement of economic empowerment policies is worth investigating particularly looking at how they have benefited indigenous communities entrepreneurially. It is evident that colonialism in Africa left significant wounds through skewed land and business ownership, uneven education systems and unequal opportunities in employment and business. The apartheid system in pre-independence South Africa used tailored legislation and governance systems to dispossess natives of their land, train Africans for certain forms of labour through Bantu education and ensured Afrikaner economic empowerment and racial dominance over non-whites. The same could be argued for the colonial government in Zimbabwe which relegated indigenous people to poor agricultural land (reserves), and controlled the provision of education to ensure that the missionaries would not 'over educate' the indigenous people. Policies such as Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) in South Africa and Indigenisation and Economic Empowerment (IEE) in Zimbabwe have been in place for several years now. The question of this study, however is whether these policies have any impact on the designated indigenous entrepreneurship practice and if so, what impact is there? If not, where is the challenge and how can they be addressed? Qualitative research methods in a form of in-depth interviews and observations will be adopted, in a purposive sampled population of indigenous entrepreneurs in South Africa and Zimbabwe. The definition of indigenous people used in this study will follow the guidelines stipulated by the ACHPR in defining the rights of indigenous peoples in Africa. [In several African states, the discussion about economic empowerment of indigenous people forms an integral part of most policy discussions. With indigenous peoples economic circumstances not improving in South Africa and Zimbabwe, in particular, it would be reasonable to investigate the existing economic empowerment policies in both countries. The evolvement of economic empowerment policies is worth investigating particularly looking at how they have benefited indigenous communities entrepreneurially. It is evident that colonialism in Africa left significant wounds through skewed land and business ownership, uneven education systems and unequal opportunities in employment and business. The apartheid system in pre-independence South Africa used tailored legislation and governance systems to dispossess natives of their land, train Africans for certain forms of labour through Bantu education and ensured Afrikaner economic empowerment and racial dominance over non-whites. The same could be argued for the colonial government in Zimbabwe which relegated indigenous people to poor agricultural land (reserves), and controlled the provision of education to ensure that the missionaries would not 'over educate' the indigenous people. Policies such as Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) in South Africa and Indigenisation and Economic Empowerment (IEE) in Zimbabwe have been in place for several years now. The question of this study, however is whether these policies have any impact on the designated indigenous entrepreneurship practice and if so, what impact is there? If not, where is the challenge and how can they be addressed? Qualitative research methods in a form of in-depth interviews and observations will be adopted, in a purposive sampled population of indigenous entrepreneurs in South Africa and Zimbabwe. The definition of indigenous people used in this study will follow the guidelines stipulated by the ACHPR in defining the rights of indigenous peoples in Africa.]

Atlas des traditions céramiques du Niger [Atlas of the ceramic traditions of Niger]
Le projet vise à documenter de façon exhaustive et reconstituer l'histoire des traditions céramiques du Niger. La démarche repose sur des enquêtes systématiques dans les centres de production de poterie du pays, afin de (1) caractériser les chaînes opératoires et le contexte socio-économique dans lequel se déroule l'activité, (2) reconstituer les circuits et les processus de propagation des traditions et (3) collecter des matériaux, des outils et des produits finis. Le travail de terrain permet parallèlement de faire le lien entre les deux régions dans lesquelles l'ULB a entrepris des recherches depuis une quinzaine d'années : partie occidentale de l'Afrique de l'Ouest et partie occidentale de l'Afrique Centrale. Le projet répond également à la demande des autorités scientifiques et politiques du Niger qui souhaitent que l'on valorise le patrimoine céramique du pays. [The project aims at the exhaustive documentation and historical reconstitution of the ceramic traditions in Niger. It is based on systematic surveys in the pottery production centres of the country, in order to 1) caracterise the manufacturing processes and the socio-economic context in which this activity takes place, 2) to reconstitute the networks and spreading processes of the traditions and 3) to collect materials, tools and finished products. The fieldwork also offers the opportunity to link two regions where the ULB carried out researches during the past fifteen years : the occidental part of West Africa and the occidental part of Central Africa. The project further meets a demand of the scientific and political authorities of Niger to valorize the ceramic heritage of the country.]



theses


GOSSELAIN, O.P, ''Identites techniques. Le travail de la poterie au Cameroun meridionnal'', dir. P. de Maret, Faculte de Philosophie et Lettres, U.L.B., Bruxelles, 1995



prix


Lauréat de l'Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-Mer (prix du concours de 1997)



disciplines et mots clés déclarés


Anthropologie Anthropologie culturelle et sociale Archéologie et techniques des fouilles Ethnographie

afrique de l'ouest archéologie atelier bénin céramique economic empowerment histoire des femmes niger Niger poterie tradition transmission