Centre for Economic and Social Studies for the Environment
|Unit 3 (and 4)||Unit 5|
|Maximum flow gas (Nm3/h)||400.000||600.000|
|Technical lifetime (years)||10||10|
|Emission value (mg/Nm3)|| |
The emission limit values taken into account come from the proposed future European standards applicable to units liable for receiving a new exploitation permit. In Belgium, these standards are stricter than the present ones especially as far as nitrogen-oxides are concerned. These values determine the minimum efficiency of air-pollution control equipment (see Table 2).
Table 2 : Reference limit values for emissions (large combustion installations, proposal for future European standards)
|Pollutants||Emissions limit values (mg/Nm3, 6% O2)|
The study of the pilot power plant has made it possible to isolate four significant parameters for choosing air pollution control equipment. These are: amount of space available; characteristics of the by-products; adaptability of control technologies to the nature of the fuel; and pollution control efficiency.
The particulate removal, de-sulfurisation and de-nitrification equipment studied in Table 3. meet these four criteria.
Table 3 : Particulate removal equipment with a view of the determination of the particulate removal costs of power plants
|ABB|| || ||SCR process|
|Haldor TopsØe||SCR process|
|FLS miljØ|| |
In order to calculate the costs of air pollution control, we have drawn up air pollutant control cost functions for each type of equipment. These cost functions include on the one hand, the fixed costs, independent of the capacity factors of the thermal power plants and on the other hand, the variable costs, which are dependent on the number of operation hours of the station.
The technico-economic assessment is based on recent data received by retailers, for each type of air-pollution control equipment: particulate removal, desulfurization, denitrification and combined processes.
The costs given below are aggregated, i.e. basing matters on different equipment scenarios. We assessed the costs of complying, in parallel with, the emission limits for particulates, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
Finally, in order to evaluate the extent of the expected consequences of the deregulation in the electricity sector, the notion of "stranded costs" is examined and applied to the costs of flue gas control. Two scenarios are analysed, i.e. the reduction of the number of operation hours and the premature closing down of these units. Only the stranded costs relative to the latter option are given in this executive summary.
The total air-pollutant control costs begin at a minimum of 4.075 million EUR/year up to a maximum of 8.25 million EUR/year, depending on the unit and equipment. The contribution of each type of air-pollutant control technology is as follows: 15 to 25% for the equipment for particulate removal, 45 to 50% for de-sulfurisation and 30 to 35% for de-nitrification.
The overall stranded costs rise from 25 million EUR to more than 40.6 million EUR, if we have to cut the use of the technologies short by 7 years (passing from an initially planned period of ten years to a real period of 3 years). These costs are in the region of 20 million to 25 million EUR in a case where the 10 years depreciation period is covered in only 5 years, and 12.5 to 17.8 million EUR for an operating period of 7 years instead of 10.
Person in charge of the search: V. LANDRAIN.